There continues to be extensive research performed in the area of addiction and addictive products, such as tobacco.  At Sentiens, we believe strongly in the scientific method to discovery, research and development.  We are grateful to those that have come before us and have given society a greater understanding of addiction.  Listed below are citations of some of the research that has been helpful in focusing our efforts.

Non-nicotine (sensory, tactile, behavioral and social) facets of smoking contribute to relief of craving and can be used to support cessation

Rose, JE, Behm, FM, Westman, EC, Bates, JE, & Salley, A. (2003) Pharmacologic and sensorimotor components of satiation in cigarette smoking. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 76(2):243–250

Rose, JE. (2006) Nicotine and nonnicotine factors in cigarette addiction. Psychopharmacology, 184(3-4):274–85.

Rose, JE, & Behm, FM. (2004) Extinguishing the rewarding value of smoke cues: pharmacological and behavioral treatments. Nicotine & Tobacco research, 6(3): 523–32.

Rose, JE. (2008) Disrupting nicotine reinforcement: from cigarette to brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1141:233–56.

Denicotinized cigarettes reduce craving as a cessation aid (but still deliver toxins)

Buchhalter, AR, Acosta, MC, Evans, SE, Breland, AB, & Eissenberg, T. (2005). Tobacco abstinence symptom suppression: the role played by the smoking-related stimuli that are delivered by denicotinized cigarettes. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 100(4): 550–9.

Buchhalter AR, Schrinel L, & Eissenberg T. (2001) Withdrawal-suppressing effects of a novel smoking system: comparison with own brand, not own brand, and de-nicotinized cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res, 3(2):111-8.

Butschky MF, Bailey D, Henningfield JE, Pickworth WB. (1995) Smoking without nicotine delivery decreases withdrawal in 12-hour abstinent smokers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 50(1):91-6.

Gross J, Lee J, Stitzer ML. (1997) Nicotine-containing versus de-nicotinized cigarettes: effects on craving and withdrawal. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 57(1-2):159-65.

Eid NC, Fant RV, Moolchan ET, Pickworth WB. (2005) Placebo cigarettes in a spaced smoking paradigm. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 81(1):158-64.

Donny, EC, Houtsmuller, E., & Stitzer, ML (2006). Smoking in the absence of nicotine: behavioral, subjective and physiological effects over 11 days. Addiction,  102:324–334.

Rose, JE (2007) Denicotinized cigarettes: a new tool to combat cigarette addiction? Addiction, 102:181-182

Sensory-mimetic cigarette substitutes can reduce craving symptoms (but devices to date have suboptimal design)

Behm FM, & Rose JE. (1994) Reducing Craving for Cigarettes While Decreasing Smoke Intake Using Capsaicin-Enhanced Low Tar Cigarettes. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2(20):143-153.

Westman, EC, Behm, FM, & Rose, J. E. (1996). Airway sensory replacement as a treatment for smoking cessation. Drug Development Research, 38(3-4): 257–262.

Rose, JE, & Behm, FM. (1994). Inhalation of vapor from black pepper extract reduces smoking withdrawal symptoms. Drug and alcohol dependence, 34(3): 225–9.

Westman EC, Behm FM, & Rose JE. (1995). Airway Sensory Replacement Combined With Nicotine Replacement for Smoking Cessation : A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Using A Citric Acid Inhaler. Chest, 107(5):1358-1364

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes) can reduce craving and increase efficacy of smoking cessation

Caponnetto P, Campagna D, Cibella F, Morjaria JB, Caruso M, et al. (2013) Efficiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66317. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066317

Andrea R. Vansickel, Caroline O. Cobb, Michael F. Weaver, et al. (2010) A Clinical Laboratory Model for Evaluating the Acute Effects of Electronic ”Cigarettes”: Nicotine Delivery Profile and Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010;19:1945-1953. Published OnlineFirst July 20, 2010.  doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0288

Andrea R Vansickel, Michael F Weaver, Thomas Eissenberg. (2012) Clinical laboratory assessment of the abuse liability of an electronic cigarette.  Addiction. 2012 August; 107(8): 1493-1500. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03791.x.

Steinberg, M., Zimmermann, M., Delnevo, C., et al. (2014) ‘E-cigarette versus nicotine inhaler: Comparing the perceptions and experiences of inhaled nicotine devices’, J Gen Int Med., 29(11), pp. 1444–50.

Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs) appear to be less lethal but limited acceptance and ineffective abstinence symptom suppression may limit their appeal

CO Cobb, MF Weaver, and T Eissenberg. (2010) Evaluating the acute effects of oral, non-combustible potential reduced exposure products marketed to smokers. Tob Control, 2010 October; 19(5): 367-373.  doi: 10.1136/tc.2008.028993